Scientific Abbreviations


3D: three-dimensional
5-HT: 5-hydroxytryptamine - serotonin

A: ampere (electric current)
Å: angstrom (10-10 m)
ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme
ACTH: adrenocorticotropin
ADP: adenosine diphosphate
ADPase: adenosine diphosphatase
AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ALT: alanine aminotransferase
AMP: adenosine monophosphate
anti-HAV: antibody to hepatitis A virus
anti-HBc: antibody to hepatitis B core antigen
anti-HBe: antibody to hepatitis B e antigen
anti-HBs: antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen
anti-HCV: antibody to hepatitis C virus
anti-HDV: antibody to hepatitis D (delta) virus
AST: aspartate aminotransferase
ATP: adenosine triphosphate
ATPase: adenosine triphosphatase

BHK: baby hamster kidney
BMI: body mass index
bp: base pair
Bq: becquerel (radioactivity)
BSA: bovine serum albumin
BUN: blood urea nitrogen

C: coulomb (electric charge)
°C: degree Celsius
CAH: chronic active hepatitis
cal: calorie(s)
cAMP: cyclic AMP
CCK: cholecystokinin
CCK-LI: cholecystokinin-like immunoreactivity
cd: candela (luminous intensity)
CDAI: Crohn's disease activity index
cDNA: complementary DNA
CFTR: cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
cGMP: guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
CGRP: calcitonin gene-related peptide
CHAPS: 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) diethy-ammonio-1 propanesulfonate
CHO: Chinese hamster ovary
Ci: curie(s)
CI: confidence interval
CK: cytokeratin
CNS: central nervous system
CoA: coenzyme A
Con A: concanavalin A
cpm: counts per minute
cps: counts per second
CRP: C-reactive protein
CT: computed tomography
CTP: cytidine triphosphate
cycle/min: cycle(s) per minute
cycle/s: cycle(s) per second

d: density
Da: dalton(s)
DAB: diaminobenzidine
DEAE: diethylaminoethyl
DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide
DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid
DNase: deoxyribonuclease
DNP: dinitrophenyl
dpm: disintegrations per minute
dps: disintegrations per second
DTT, dithiothreitol

ECM, extracellular matrix
EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EGF: epidermal growth factor
EGTA: ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethylether)- N:N'-tetraacetic acid
EIA: enzymeimmunoassay
ELAM: endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule
ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
EM: electron microscopy
Eq: equivalent(s)
ER: endoplasmic reticulum
ERCP: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
EUS: endoscopic ultrasonography
eV: electron volt(s)

F: farad (capacitance)
°F: degree Fahrenheit
FACS®: registered trademark of Becton Dickinson and Company for a fluorescence-activated cell sorter
FBS: fetal bovine serum
FCS: fetal calf serum
FEVx: forced expiratory volume in x s
FFA: free fatty acid(s)
FGF: fibroblast growth factor
FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate
FNA: fine needle aspiration
Fr: French
FRAP: fluorescence recovery after photobleaching
FRET: fluorescence resonance energy transfer
ft: foot

g: gram
g: unit of gravity
G: gauss
GAD: glutamate decarboxylase
GIP: gastric inhibitory polypeptide
GRP: gastrin-releasing peptide
GTP: guanosine triphosphate
Gy: gray (absorbed dose)

h: hour
H: henry (inductance)
HAV: hepatitis A virus
HbA1: glycosylated hemoglobin A1
HBcAg: hepatitis B core antigen
HBeAg: hepatitis B e antigen
HBsAg: hepatitis B surface antigen
HBSS: Hanks' balanced salt solution
HBV: hepatitis B virus
HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma
HCV: hepatitis C virus
HDL: high density lipoprotein
HDV: hepatitis D (delta) virus
H&E;: hematoxylin and eosin stain
HEPES: N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethane sulfonic acid
HLA: human leukocyte antigen
HMG: hydroxymethylglutaryl
HMG-CoA: hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A
HPF: high-power fields
HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography
HRP: horseradish peroxidase
Hz: hertz (cycle frequency)

i.a.: intra-arterial(ly)
IA-2: insulinoma-associated protein 2
IBD: inflammatory bowel disease
ICAM: intercellular adhesion molecule-1
i.c.: intracisternal(ly)
i.d.: internal diameter
IEF: isoelectric focusing
IEL: intraepithelial leucocyte
Ig: immunoglobulin
IGF: insulin-like growth factor
i.l.: intraluminal(ly)
IL: interleukin(s)
i.m.: intramuscular(ly)
in: inch(es)
i.p.: intraperitoneal(ly)
IU: international unit(s)
i.v.: intravenous(ly)

J: joule (energy)

K: kelvin (temperature)
kat: katal (molar flow)
kb: kilobase(s)
kbp: kilobase pair(s)
kg: kilogram (mass)
Km: Michaelis constant

L: liter(s)
lb: pound(s)
LDH: lactate dehydrogenase
LDL: low density lipoprotein
LES: lower esophageal sphincter
lm: lumen (luminous flux)
lx: lux (luminance)
m: meter (lenght)
M: molar
mAb: monoclonal antibody
MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
MDCK: Madin-Darby canine kidney
MEM: Eagle's minimum essential medium
MES: 2-(N-morpholino)ethane sulfonic acid
mile/h: mile(s) per hour (not mph)
min: minute(s)
mmHg: millimeter(s) of mercury
MMP: matrix metalloproteinase
mo: month(s)
MOF: multi-organ failure
mol: mole (amount of substance)
mol wt: molecular weight
MOPS: morpholino propane sulfonic acid
Mr: relative molecular mass
MR: magnetic resonance
MRCP: magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
mRNA: messenger RNA

N: newton (force)
n: number in a study or group
NA: not applicable
NAD+: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
NADH: NAD+ reduced
NADP: NAD+phosphate
NADPH: NADP reduced
NANB: non-A, non-B (hepatitis)
NBD: nitrobenzoxadiazole
ND: not determined
NEPHGE: nonequilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis
NF-kappaB: nuclear factor kappa B
NGF: nerve growth factor
NIH: US National Institute of Health (Bethesda: Maryland: USA)
No.: number
NOS: nitric oxide synthase
NP-40: Nonidet P-40
NPY: neuropeptide Y
NS: not significant
NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

o.d.: outer diameter
OD: optical density
osM: osmolar
osmol: osmole(s)
oz: ounce(s)

P: probability
Pa: pascal (pressure)
PAGE: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
PAR: protease activated receptor
PBS: phosphate-buffered saline
PCA: perchloric acid
PCR: polymerase chain reaction
PD: potential difference
PDGF: platelet-derived growth factor
PEG: polyethylene glycol
PG: prostaglandin
PGI: prostacyclin
PHI: peptide histidine isoleucine
Pi: inorganic orthophosphate
PI: phosphatidylinositol
Pipes: [1:4-piperazinebis(ethane sulfonic acid)]
PLC: phospholipase C
PLT: pancreolauryl test
PMN: polymorphonuclear
PMSF: phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride
PP: pancreatic polypeptide
PRSS1: cationic trypsinogen
PSTI: pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor
PTH: parathyroid hormones
PYY: peptide YY

r: correlation coefficient
rad: radian (plane angle)
RAS: renin-angiotensin system
RAAS: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
RBC: red blood cell
RFLP: restriction fragment length polymorphism
RER: rough endoplasmic reticulum
RIA: radioimmunoassay
RNA: ribonucleic acid
RNase: ribonuclease
RNP: ribonucleoprotein
RNS: reactive nitrogen species
ROC: receiver operating characteristic
ROS: reactive oxygen species
rpm: revolutions per minute
RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute
rps: revolutions per second
RT-PCR: reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction

s: second(s)
s: sedimentation coefficient
S: siemens (conductance)
s.c.: subcutaneous(ly)
SD: standard deviation
SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate
SE: standard error
SEM: standard error of the mean
SGOT: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
SGPT: serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase
SI: Système International
SIRS: systemic inflammatory response syndrome
SOD: Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction
SP: substance P
sp act: specific activity
sr: steradian (solid angle)
SPINK1: serine protease inhibitor, Kazal type 1
SSC: standard saline citrate
SSCP: single-strand conformation polymorphism
Sv: sievert (dose equivalent)
SV-40: simian virus 40

T: tesla (magnetic flux density)
t1/2: half-life: half-time
TAP: trypsin activation peptide
TBS: Tris-buffered saline
TCA: trichloroacetic acid
TdR: thymidine deoxyribose
TGF: transforming growth factor
TGN: trans-Golgi network
Th: T helper (Th1 cell: etc.)
TIU: trypsin inhibitor units
TLC: thin layer chromatography
TNF: tumor necrosis factor
TPN: total parenteral nutrition
Tris: tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
TRITC: tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate
tRNA: transfer RNA
TXA2: thromboxane A2

u: unified atomic mass unit(s)
U: unit(s)
UC: ulcerative colitis
UDCA: ursodeoxycholic acid
UDP: uridine 5'-diphosphate
UDT: uridine triphosphate
US: ultrasonography
UV: ultraviolet

V: volt (electrical potential - voltage)
VIP: vasoactive intestinal polypeptide
VLDL: very low density lipoprotein
vol: volume
vs.: versus

W: watt (power)
Wb: weber (magnetic flux)
WGA: wheat germ agglutinin
wk: week
wt: weight

yr: year

´: magnification
W: ohm (resistance)

Combining Prefixes

T: tera- (1012)
G: giga- (109) [billion (U.S.)]
M: mega- (106) [million]
k: kilo- (103) [thousand]
h: hecto- (102) [hundred]
da: deca- (101) [ten]
d: deci- (10-1) [tenth]
c: centi- (10-2 [hundredth])
m: milli- (10-3) [thousandth]
m: micro- (10-6) [millionth]
n: nano- (10-9) [billionth U.S.]
p: pico- (10-12)
f: femto- (10-15)
a: atto- (10-18)

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